Was there a rising bourgeoisie in 18th century France?
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John Q . Student
Wright State UniversityBourgeoisie in 18th Century France
The question is raised of whether there was a rising bourgeoisie in 18th Century France . By conducting relevant research and looking into the background of the issue , this aims to prove that there was indeed such a bourgeoisie in 18th Century France
The word bourgeoisie ‘ is of French origin itself , and it is important to understand both the meaning of the word in its entirety as well [banner_entry_middle]
as the background of 18th Century France in to be able to accurately answer this question
One of the best definitions of Bourgeoisie ‘ is the following Bourgeoisie (boorz ‘hwdz-ee ) in modern use refers to the wealthy classes in a capitalist society . It is a French word , derived from the Italian borghesia (from borgo , village , in turn from Greek pyrgos . A borghese then , was a freeman of a burgh or town . The word evolved to mean merchants and traders , and later on referred to all persons in the broad socioeconomic spectrum between nobility and serfs (en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Bourgeoisie , 2006
It is important to consider the history of France at the time in question . In Old Regime France 1648 – 1788 (Short Oxford History of France , William Doyle discusses the years between the Fronde and the French Revolution , which were the longest period of calm in French history . For the most part of this period of time , France dominated the international scene in Europe and made efforts to achieve a comparable role in the wider world . Meanwhile , French cultural achievements set standards imitated everywhere . The volume written by Doyle both brings together an international team of contributors , and also surveys the full variety of the period on its own terms rather than as a mere prelude to later revolutionary upheavals (Doyle , 2001
Let ‘s take a brief look at an overview of the history of France leading them up to , and during , the 18th Century . France was one of the earliest countries to progress from feudalism to the nation-state . Its monarchs surrounded themselves with capable ministers , and French armies were among the most innovative , disciplined , and professional of their day . During the reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715 , France was the dominant power in Europe . But overly ambitious projects and military campaigns of Louis and his successors led to chronic financial problems in the 18th Century . Deteriorating economic conditions and popular resentment against the complicated system of privileges granted the nobility and clerics were among the principal causes of the French Revolution (1789-94 . Although the revolutionaries advocated republican and egalitarian principles of government , France reverted to forms of absolute rule or constitutional monarchy four times–the Empire of Napoleon , the Restoration of Louis XVIII , the reign of Louis-Philippe and the Second Empire of Napoleon III . After the Franco-Prussian War (1870 , the Third Republic was established and lasted until the military defeat of 1940 (Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs , 2006
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