Essay Title: 

Total Knee Arthroplasty

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in case study, mathematics and economics


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which a diseased , worn out or a damaged joint is replaced with an artificial one known as `joint prosthesis . The degenerated surfaces of the joint are removed and replaced with artificial joint articulating surfaces . Several materials have been utilized to replace the joint Efforts are being made to use advanced materials which are strong durable and long-lasting . TKA may be performed to reconstruct a movable joint in the body or to treat several conditions that may affect the joint including infections , deformities , injuries (trauma [banner_entry_middle]

. In TKA the opposing surfaces of the joints are removed and replaced with an artificial device

TKA may be performed when the individual is experiencing severe symptoms arising from certain conditions affecting the joint . In some individuals , the pain is so severe and cannot be alleviated through more conservative forms of treatment (Mayo , 2006 . In such cases , joint replacement is advised . Individuals with osteoarthritis (degenerative disease of the joint ) benefit immensely from result in loss of muscle strength , which further leads to development of severe functional disability . Joint replacement may be required in rheumatoid arthritis , tuberculosis arthritis (in which the joint gets destroyed ) or traumatic arthritis (following serious injury to the knee joint (EhealthMD , 2004 . Some of the structural deformities in the joints lead to severe functional disabilities , and in such cases restoration of the structure may be required to enable joint motion In some cases , the fracture of the femur may not undergo normal healing and is related to several complications . In such cases TKA may help to restore the fractured head of the femur . TKA is also required following benign and malignant tumors of the knee joint (Freedman , K . B , 2005 Elders (individuals above the age of 55 ) are considered better candidates for TKA , as the prosthesis fail in younger individuals due to excessive usage (Harkess , J . W , 2003 . Besides , several other factors such as cardiovascular status , nutritional well-being , diabetes status physical fitness , etc improve the outcome following TKA . Some patients with pseudo gout or chondrocalcinosis can occasionally be considered for TKA (Harkess , J . W , 2003

A thorough evaluation of the joint and the individual ‘s physical fitness needs to be conducted before joint replacement surgeries are performed The range of motion , the extent of the disability and the impact this disability has on the normal functions is determined . The physical fitness for the individual to undergo surgery is thoroughly determined through cardiac , pulmonary , blood and urine tests . A detailed physical examination is also performed . Several imaging tests such as X-rays CT scans and MRI scans are also required from different angles or views (Mayo , 2006 . These include anterior-posterior views from the jip to the ankle , slanting lateral view , flexion lateral views , and Merchant ‘s views (McPherson , E , 2000 . A precise pre-operative planning is required with the X-rays to determine the nature of the correction and the defects in the bone which may need bone grafting and augmentation Other causes of knee pain such as… [banner_entry_footer]


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