Essay Title: 

Thomas Hobbes

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in philosophy, social sciences

br HOBBES ’92 MAN IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

br Thomas Hobbes gave the world one of its most remarkable analyses of the working of human nature . Although it is now largely forgotten in many fields , his own times considered it very important . Hobbes divided his analysis of human behavior into two great categories : ’93ethical ’94 and ’93political ’94 Under the heading of ethical analysis he grouped his discussions about the nature of man . His political thought included his discussions about the nature of man when in society , because man had [banner_entry_middle]

to shape his behavior to the requirement of society . Absent any effective political authority — that is if man was in a state of nature which amounted to a state of war of all against all — man had the right to protect himself by doing whatever he deemed right for himself . If a political authority exists then man ’92s duty was to obey (Williams (2006 : Durant (1963 )

. 554 Strauss (1936 ) passim

To develop his view of human nature , Hobbes formulated what was for the time a very sophisticated psychological model . However , it is important to realize that he did so through a deductive reasoning process . This meant that instead of starting with observation and experiments , as modern psychologists do , Hobbes started with certain ’93first principles ’94 For Hobbes , there was no need to observe or experiment , because he believed that these first principles provided an absolute guide to understanding human nature . Hobbes asserted that he had drawn these first principles from careful self-examination , but most modern scholars see much more of the considerations of Hobbes own political circumstances and from his various scholarly efforts , the foremost being his translation of the historian Thucydides from Greek into English (Williams (2006

Hobbes regarded a human being as merely a sophisticated machine . This meant that every function in the body and the mind can be analyzed in terms of pure mechanics . He went so far as to reason that thought itself can be understood as an instance of the physical operation of the human body . The driving force in all this was sensation . Sensation provoked the various and numerous mechanical processes in the human nervous system , and the minds creation of thought was a reaction to various sensations by the brain which perceived them (Leviathan I 1 Williams (2006 Kemerling (2001 Durant (1963 )

. 553

Hobbes acknowledged that his view of human nature emphasizes the animal nature in man . If left to his own devices , free from any constraints involved with living with others , acting entirely out of self-interest and without regard to anyone else , man would be left in what Hobbes calls , a “state of war ” a way of life that would be ’93solitary poor , nasty , brutish , and short ’94 (Leviathan I 13 ) To escape this war of all against all , men entered into contracts with one other – ’97mutually beneficial agreements in which each person surrendered some individual interest to obtain the advantage of security that could… [banner_entry_footer]

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