Essay Title: 

The pathology, physiology and biochemistry of hypertension.

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in health and medicine

: The pathology , physiology and biochemistry of hypertension

p : language Write a report of the pathology , physiology and biochemistry of hypertension

Hypertension is a condition in which the individual ‘s blood pressure rises to an abnormal level . In this condition , the systolic blood pressure is persistently above 140 mm of Hg and /or the diastolic blood is persistently above 90 mm of Hg . The quantity of blood pumped by the heart , and the size of the blood determine the blood pressure (blood pressure cardiac output peripheral vascular resistance . Besides this , the [banner_entry_middle]

quantity of water present in the body , the salt levels kidneys , nervous system , hormone levels , etc , also play a very important role in determining the blood pressure (Najafian , N , 2006

The blood pressure tends to increase with age , and is about 160 /95 at the age of 50 years . There may several causes related to hypertension However , in 95 of the cases a single underlying cause is not found which may be due to interplay of several factors . This type of hypertension is known as `essential hypertension . In more than 70 of such individual , a pattern of inheritance is observed . Several ethnic groups such as Jews , African-American and Japanese , develop hypertension more often (Mayo Clinic . 2006

Studies have demonstrated that the important cause for essential hypertension is an increase in the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels . This dis can develop due to sympathetic nervous activity or from narrowing of the blood vessels . The remaining 5 of the cases are caused due to certain diss such as cardiac dis (corarctation of the aorta , renal diss (glomerulonephritis and chronic pyelonrphritis , endocrinal diss (such as pheochromocytoma primary aldosteronism , Cushing ‘ syndrome , drug usage (such as corticosteroids , certain birth control pills ) and sometimes during pregnancy . Excessive hormones are released in pheochromocytoma , which cause an increase in the cardiac output and rise in the peripheral vascular resistance . In the renal dis , the kidneys do not function efficiently , resulting in sodium retention in the body . In some conditions , excessive rennin is produced by the kidney resulting in activation of the angiotensin II (that has great vasoconstrictor action . Angiotensin II encourages release of aldosterone which causes sodium retention . In primary aldosteronism , the mineral sodium is retained in the body , along with changes in the vascular smooth muscles of the blood vessels (Boon , N .A . and Fox , K .A .A . 1996

In individuals with essential hypertension , the large arteries experience changes in the vessel wall . The inner elastic lamina gets thickened the smooth muscles increase in size and fibrous tissues gets deposited . In an effort to normalise the blood flow , the arteries dilate and become tortuous . In such circumstances , due to the damage of the inner-lining tissues of the blood vessels (endothelium , the deposition and retention of lipoproteins in the sub-epithelial wall develops . Along with this , other substances such as connective tissue matrix , smooth muscles , the mineral calcium , inflammatory cells and newly-developed blood vessels are formed (Shah ,

.K , 2001 . Smaller blood vessels get narrowed… [banner_entry_footer]

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