Essay Title: 

Quantitative Reasoning

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in health and medicine

: Quantitative Reasoning

p : language Case

Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been implicated in various problems with infant health . Spend some time investigating the results of any published studies that you can find in the Web using any appropriate search engine

Based on what you learn , develop a research question on the health of babies born to smoking versus non-smoking mothers and devise a testable hypothesis related to this health issue . List as many problems as you can identify and anticipate in interpreting the data that your investigation will reveal [banner_entry_middle]

p A good Research Question in this regard would be `Infants born to mothers that smoked during pregnancy have an increased incidence of low birth-weight compared to infants born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy

A study was conducted to determine the effect of smoking in the pregnant women on the birth weight of the child and specific effect on the sex of the child . About 888 , 632 single-baby deliveries were examined . Babies who had a birth-weight more than 10 below the normal were considered to be abnormal or `small for gestational age . It was observed that the amount of cigarettes smoked by the mother was directly responsible for affecting the birth-weight . The ill-effects of birth weight were more on the girl child than the boy . The incidences of low birth-weight were relatively low in non-smokers . The risk of developing infants with low birth-weight was 1 .7275 times than normal in girls and 1 .7143 times in boys , following mild smoking in pregnancy . In severe smoking , the incidence was 3 .51 times greater in girls and 3 .15 times in boys (Voigt , M . Et al , 2006

Another study was conducted on more than 1000 Belgrade women between 1992 and 1993 . The pregnant women were divided into 3 groups , namely non-smokers , mild smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day ) and severe smokers (more than 10 cigarettes per day . The birth-weight , birth length and the birth circumference was examined , and found to be slightly reduced in mild smoking and seriously reduced in severe smoking (Vlajinac , H . Et al , 1997

A study conducted in Pelotas , Brazil showed that babies born from mothers who smoked during the pregnancy were 142 grams below normal body weight on an average compared to non-smokers . The incidences and severity of fetal abnormalities was higher with the more intense forms of smoking (Horta , H .L . Et al , 1997

In Hong Kong a retrospective case control survey was performed to study the ill-effects smoking had on pregnancy (1988-90 . The incidence of smoking in the hospital in pregnant women was about 1 .57 (mild ) and 0 .28 (intense . Women were asked to give up smoking during the initial stages of their pregnancy . 2 .5 stopped just before conception , 33 stopped 16 weeks before , 23 stopped between 16 to 30 weeks , 11 stopped between 30 to 36 weeks and 30 stopped after 36 weeks . On an average , babies weighed 200 grams lesser in mothers who smoked during pregnancy than… [banner_entry_footer]


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