Essay Title: 

Pushmataha A Choctaw Leader and His People by Gideon Lincecum

March 29, 2016 | Author: | Posted in modern technologies, technology

_Pushmataha : A Choctaw Leader and His People

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In the book Pushmataha : A Choctaw Leader and His People by Gideon Lincecum , the

theme of survival and leadership are the main points of the story . Greg O ‘brien , professor of

history at the University of Southern Mississippi wrote the introduction . This important

historical book has two parts namely : Life of Apushimata ‘ and Choctaw Traditions About

Their Settlements in Mississippi and the Origin of Their Mounds Lincecum tells the story

of Choctaw chief Pushmataha whom he met when he [banner_entry_middle]

and his family lived in Tombigbee

River region during the period 1818 until mid-1830 . He has written a most useful

of Pushmataha ‘s life story . Lincecum also wrote a part of the traditional history – the so-

called Skuk-haanumpula of the Choctaw tribe as verbally narrated by Chata Immataha , the

oldest man in the world and who knew everything . It explains how and why the sacred

Nanih Waiya mound was erected and how the Choctaws built new villages and it describes

the structure of leadership in their society

Choctaw chief Pushmataha was born on the Noxubee River near present-day Macon

Mississippi at around 1764 . According to Lincecum , he involved himself in warfare from an

early age , initially against the Creek Indians , who had been in conflict with the Choctaws

from 1765 until 1777 . Since warfare was the basic test to every Choctaw Indian boy to

become a man or earn a title , he was allowed to participate in war parties at an early age

Successful war parties will prove that a Choctaw male had at least a knowledge on spiritual

power since it was needed to have a spiritual protection and performance of rituals in to

win an Indian war . Those who won in war will be expected to more responsibility within the

Choctaw tribe . Pushmataha became a renown fearless warrior because of his successful war

exploits against Caddo and Osage Indians west of the Mississippi River His greatness as a

warrior and hunter earned him the respect of the Choctaws and the leaders bestowed on him

the title of Pushmataha , his name literally mean one whose tomahawk is fatal in war or

_Pushmataha : A Choctaw Leader and His People

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hunting . He assumed a diplomatic position in the Six Towns Division of the Choctaw

Confederacy . Then later on , sometime around 1800 Pushmataha became a chief and

participated in negotiations with the Americans . He became an eloquent speaker and

persuaded both the Choctaws and the Americans with his reasoning ability and played an

important role in all the negotiations . He helped General Andrew Jackson in fighting against

the Creek Indians and thus , received benefits for many years from the American government

In 1824 , Pushmataha traveled to Washington to negotiate the Treaty of Doak ‘s Stand which

was the removal of Choctaw people to Oklahoma Territory but he became sick and died

there . He was buried and given full military honors in the Congressional Cemetery at


A long time ago… [banner_entry_footer]


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