Essay Title: 

profissional practices and powerlines

April 2, 2016 | Author: | Posted in geography, nature

Professional Practices and Power Lines

Professional Practices and Power Lines

Public concerns on possible health risks from residential exposures to low-strength , low-frequency electric and magnetic fields became a major focus of scientists and government officials . In 1991 , the National Academy of Sciences (NAS ) was asked by the United States of America Congress to review the researches conducted on the effects from exposure to electromagnetic fields and determine whether the scientific basis was sufficient to assess health risks from such exposures (Miller et al 1996 Moulder , 2006

Overview

Health Effects [banner_entry_middle]

p According to studies (ELF Electric magnetic fields : health effects exposure guidelines , n .d , biological material being affected by electromagnetic fields depends on the frequency of the source . It usually acts as waves but at times , it acts like particles especially at high frequencies . The particle nature of electromagnetic energy is important because it is the energy per particle (or photons ) that determines what biological effects electromagnetic energy will have (Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields , 1997 . These photons are believed to have abilities to break chemical bonds (called ionization ) because it has enough energy (Moulder , 2006

The ionizing and non-ionizing characteristics of electromagnetic fields and biological effects lead to researches on its possible carcinogenic effects to humans . The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC ) is the one responsible for cancer research for the HYPERLINK “http /www .who .int /peh-emf /en ” World Health Organization . IARC reported in 2001 that “overall , extremely low frequency magnetic fields were evaluated as possibly carcinogenic to humans , based on the statistical association of higher level residential extremely low frequency (ELF ) magnetic fields and increased risk for childhood leukemia (Miller , et al , 1996 Repacholi , 1998 ” However , studies are still underway to determine if ELF exposure can influence cancer promotion or co-promotion (Electric and magnetic fields , 2003

Laboratory studies on humans exposed to intense electric and magnetic fields produced no observed changes in blood pressure , body temperature sleep , appetite or physical functions (Electric and magnetic fields 2003 . Other studies showed mood and behavior unchanged in human subjects (Repacholi , 1998

The use of cardiac pacemakers and other implanted electromedical devices was also reported to be affected by strong electromagnetic fields (Repacholi , 1998 . WHO then suggested manufacturers of such devices to manufacture less susceptible electromedical devices to EMI . These fields were shown to cause electromagnetic interference (EMI ) and may be more of a threat than a benefit to the patient . It was suggested that these patients must consult their doctor for possible susceptibility to EMI

Environmental Effects

The electromagnetic fields were known to lower the dielectric constant of the water due to the resultant partial or complete destruction of the hydrogen-bonded network (Moulder , 2006 Electric and magnetic fields 2003 . In addition to the breakage of hydrogen bonds , electromagnetic fields may perturb in the gas /liquid interface and produce reactive oxygen species (Electric and magnetic fields , 2003 . These changes in hydrogen bonding may effect carbon dioxide hydration resulting in pH changes . This consequently decreases the quality… [banner_entry_footer]

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