Essay Title: 

Overseas students change their dietary patterns after studying in the U.K.

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in economics, mathematics and economics

Running Head : Dietary Patterns

Overseas Students Change their Dietary Patterns after Studying in U .K

[Name of Writer]

[Name of Institution]

ABSTRACT

The purpose of obtaining the below-mentioned detailed information was to gather and review the dietary patterns perception of international students and immigrants , who study in the United Kingdom after coming from their different location , culture , food , and living . A questionnaire of 12 queries was designed for the abovementioned objective , which was then filled out by different immigrants and students living in United Kingdom . The questionnaire was related [banner_entry_middle]

to the different eating patterns and habits of these students , their background , and the frequency of consumption of different food items in a cross-sectional survey , that is , before and after living in this Kingdom

Students of local high schools and universities were the potential participants of this assessment . Some of them were the Asians , who have come from Japan , Korea , China , India , Pakistan , and various other Asian countries . Other subjects were Africans and Europeans , who were immigrated to United Kingdom for the purpose of their education

After moving to the United Kingdom , the students were found less consuming the fresh fruits than the oils and fats . The frequency table showed that fresh fruit juices , raw vegetables , fish , poultry , and legumes had significant decreases related to their consumption . Whereas immigrants snacks , burgers , biscuits , soft and hot drinks sauces , and other fizzy munchies during their study time . During the appraisal , some of the forms were not returned , and therefore , 74 was the response rate in this regard

Various difficulties were highlighted in the findings that were borne by the international students in a foreign country . The high cost barrier of healthier foods and the availability of fats and oils in a less cost and cheaper quality inclined these immigrants to the later one in their living . In the light of the facts , and figures gathered from these results , it was very difficult and complicated for these subjects to maintain the eating patterns , which they were used to apply in their countries

INTRODUCTION

Several studies have observed and indicated that various diseases like coronary heart diseases , circulatory diseases , and different cancers are caused by intake of excessive fat through diet of less fruits and vegetables and high percentage of fat goods , such as , snacks chocolates , burgers , etc

Likewise , inadequate intake of fiber also causes and associates higher risk for colon cancer and other coronary heart diseases . From various cross-culture comparisons , significant positive connection has been identified between the mortality rate of coronary heart diseases and dietary fat having excess calories , fat , and especially saturated fat

Different studies related to migrant epidemiology have shown that evaluators get several opportunities related to people who migrate from one place to another region having same cultural and genetic background regarding the risk factors borne by them

In a study related to Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United Kingdom , it was observed by the intellectuals that they carried higher percentage of risks of getting breast , rectum , and colon cancer , than their counterparts living in their own countries

This shows that dietary changes may bring different unfavorable results in people from the different backgrounds . In contrast , these Japanese and Chinese immigrants has the less percentage of risks related to liver and stomach cancer , when compared with the people of same background but living in their countries

In another study that was related with the dietary patterns of the international students and immigrants , it was observed that sons of these immigrants were having mortality risks of different cancers in the pattern that was carried by the locals of that area

In different studies , it was determined that environmental factors effect the cancer risks more than the genetic ones , and if we analyze different environmental factors , the component that was found having the ability to increase those risks on a large extent was the dietary change in international students immigrants

Therefore , we can say and generalize that immigration brings different risks and various advantages with its arrival in the students and people coming from various cultural and social backgrounds , in regard with the change in their diet and eating habits

In the light of different studies related to the Western and Oriental dietary habits , one of the main differences was the intake of fat and fiber content in the people of these backgrounds . When a typical Asian diet was examined , it was seen that the Asian people low fat especially low animal fat in their diet . However , fiber was found on a large extent in their dietary patterns , than a typical United Kingdom diet

On the other hand , generally , the diet of a typical UK local was by these Asian students in the UK universities , and they changed their dietary patterns on this basis during their educational visit to the United Kingdom . However , during the various migrant epidemiologic studies , it should be kept in mind that the methods may bring different and misleading results , if they are not identical

In the previous studies , food intake data was collected by the surveyors through per capita food consumption estimations on the scale of whole population , and sometimes , other different methods were used to identify the factors , which inherited difficulties in the comparisons as mentioned above . Some other Asian nutritionists in the past have failed to provide actual data related to their Asian immigrants and students in the United Kingdom

Cultures shape different food habits and patterns , which are vulnerable to various changes that happened in a new foreign country during the acculturation process of these immigrants . As mentioned above , the maintaining of traditional and customary eating habits and patterns of the migrants is very difficult in the foreign country

For example , it is very expensive and complicated for these international apprentices to find their traditional and habitual foods in the United Kingdom . Even if they are able to find these , they found their foods more expensive than the local items

The exposure to the new and foreign environment plays a vital role in the dietary changes of these immigrants . Sometimes , these students are unable to speak and understand the new language properly and therefore they tend to change their dietary patterns in the United Kingdom . The socializing with the foreign counterparts and their eating habits also plays the major role in changing the dietary plans and eating habits of the international immigrants from the Asian , African , and other European countries

Some studies have also shown that older immigrants change their eating habits on a lesser extent than the younger ones . Peer pressure also support this finding regarding the younger students , as younger immigrants try to dominate their friends and colleagues by applying the habits and styles of that particular area . Therefore , many Asian students are found trying to look like their British colleagues and so they adopt the eating habits of these locals

In some cases , it has been observed that health status also has some undesirable and adverse effects due to the transformation to an advanced Westernized eating habit from a traditional and customary dietary pattern of these overseas students . Clues to etiology of chronic diet-related diseases have been supplied and obtained by the studies and surveys taken from the migrant and local populations of the United Kingdom

If we look into the detailed history of these types of studies long-term migration has been the subject of most of the studies and surveys for the comparison of dietary patterns and eating habits of overseas students . Short-term migration or temporary translocation has also been the matter of investigation in few studies

However , undesirable and significant changes in dietary patterns and eating habits have also been observed during even a short-term stay in a foreign country . The example of the United Kingdom is quite popular where international students migrate for their educational purposes

In the light of different researches , Mediterranean diet is one of the diets that is recognized as the best one and is being promoted due to its different features . Its deliciousness and various health benefits are some of the characteristics , which are good for every age and different health organizations have promoted this diet

In contrast , low average intake of fruit and vegetables is observed in the Scottish diet , where fat energy is consumed on a high percentage This cause different circulatory diseases and allow cancer symptoms in the body . From this study , it was determined by the health professors that even a temporary translocation was enough for the eating habits of international students and immigrants to have undesirable and adverse effects

Therefore , the present study has the purpose of examining the overseas students regarding their dietary patterns and eating habits in detail that is , before and after the immigration to the United Kingdom . Various intakes of fat , calories , and fiber was scrutinized and observed during this study , which will help the nutritionists in their future studies

In this study , different and various reasons and factors were examined in to evaluate the likeness of these international students regarding the change of their dietary patterns in the United Kingdom Different causes related to the living environment , peer pressure money , health , education schedule , expensive food , and a large variety of sources were determined during this study

In to identify the abovementioned reasons , a questionnaire of 12 detailed questions was created and modified as per the aforementioned aims and purpose of this investigation . Different overseas students were asked to fill out these questionnaires , who were not residing in the United Kingdom for their educational purposes for more than three years .The staying period of three years was determined , as the students with the longer period of stay in the U .K , were likely to have more wages and earning , and high ability and capability to speak and understand the English language , when compared with their counterparts on a short stay in the United Kingdom

It was observed through the assessment that overseas students who had come to the United Kingdom for their education were gone through an abrupt transformation of their customary diet to a typical U .K . style The students had gain weight during this period , as more unhealthy and fat good was ingested by these students due to various different reasons and causes

Some of the major grounds were that healthy food is very expensive in the United Kingdom , when it comes to the fruits , vegetables , juices milk , etc . Whereas , fat foods , snacks , cold drinks , and hot drinks are quite cheaper than the former ones . Therefore , it is obvious that in to save money , the students were likely to weight gain through snacks and drinks during their study time

Another reason that was detected during this survey was the availability of less eating time for the students due to burden of studies of them Therefore , they readymade snacks rather than going for expensive vegetables and meat in their diet . Peer pressure was also keenly observed during this study , as overseas students tried to act like their local classmates , in to be their part and to get rid of their inferiority , which was felt by them after the migration

Alcoholic drinks , mayonnaise , sauces , biscuits , and snacks were found to be intake by these students on a higher extent . One of the other reasons was that these students were unfamiliar with the taste of the local healthy food , as they were brought up on their customary and traditional food in the country . Therefore , they the abovementioned category of fat foods , as the taste of these goods in the United Kingdom were same as compared to their own country

Some of these reasons are the main barriers of these overseas students who migrate in the United Kingdom for their education purpose , and find healthier food more expensive than the unhealthier one . The unavailability of their customary food lead them to intake high amount of fat energy in their body , which causes weight gain and risks of having various diseases as discussed previously in the introduction

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Subjects

Undergraduate and postgraduate students of different universities of the United Kingdom were the participants of this study . They were invited to fill out the previously mentioned questionnaire regarding their eating habits , which changed before and after their arrival in the United Kingdom

The students contributed their answers voluntary and the confidentiality was assured to them by the surveyor . The purpose of this study was discussed with these willing students and it was tried to solve their concerns regarding their weight gain and adverse and undesirable changes

As mentioned previously , these overseas students were mainly from the Asian countries , such as , Japan , Korea , China , India , Pakistan , etc African and European students also participated in these studies , who were also studying in the United Kingdom universities for their bachelors and masters degrees

Questionnaire Development

In to discuss the different features of the designed questionnaire , it was divided in two segments . The first section highlighted their personal information , such as , gender , age , height current weight after coming in the United Kingdom , previous weight that was in their own country before the arrival in the U .K , their nationality , and their stay in the U .K

The first section helped the researcher to identify the cultural and genetic background of the participant , which was necessary for the classification of different factors related to the dietary patters of the student . The different weights assisted the examiner to evaluate the change in the weight as per the diet of the contributor

Therefore , the basic demographic and anthropometric data of the participant were included in the first section of the questionnaire , in to observe their likeliness in changing their dietary patterns after migrating to the United Kingdom

The second section of the questionnaire was related to the dietary pattern and eating habits of the student , who had come from the abroad to study in the United Kingdom . Dietary practices of these students were taken in this survey . For example , students were asked the frequency of their intake of breakfast in a week . Their breakfast was also discussed during the assessment , in to know the consumption of healthy or unhealthy foods in it

The consumption of different meals and their timings were obtained before and after their arrival in the U .K . The inclusion of vegetables and fruits during their own cooking , were also acquired by the surveyor Secondly , their preference over different available foods , such as , Fish and Chips , Pizza , Burger , Chinese , Vegetable , etc , were obtained during the survey

Food items consumption frequency was also acquired during the assessment . The students were asked to tick the frequency of different food items , before and while living in the United Kingdom . Different categories of vegetables , Grains , meats , fruits , Dairy products , Fats Beverages , and Snacks were given in the tables to these overseas students

The Grains category included bagels , pizza , cereals , sandwiches , pasta breads , noodles , and rice . Whereas , Vegetables group was comprised of broccoli , lettuce , asparagus , corn , onion , carrots , potatoes , tomatoes mushrooms , bell pepper , bean sprout , and spinach . The surveyor included strawberry , bananas , apples , oranges , peaches , and grapes in the Fruits . Hamburger , hot dog , ham , turkey , beef , shrimp , chicken , bacon , pork duck , and fish were listed in the Meat and Meat Alternatives able . Dairy Products contained milk , cheese , yogurt , and ice cream

Butter , chocolates , cakes , candies , cookies , and cooking oil were part of the Fats and Sweets category . However , Beverages and Others included coffee , fizzy drinks , tea , intakes of more than one drink of Alcohol French Fries , and Bean Curd

The abovementioned detailed categories helped the researcher to obtained thorough details about the participant ‘s dietary patterns and its changes after coming in the United Kingdom . In this section , some factors were also considered , which might influence the eating habits and dietary patterns of the students

Such as , students were asked for their available times that may be utilize for the cooking purpose from the raw material , or if they were aware of the hygienic food and balanced diet . These factors were also collected on basis of before and after coming in the United Kingdom

The abovementioned table is the example of food items consumption frequency table

Following chart shows food items consumption frequency in days and week before and present living students in the U .K . at the following table ( tick the frequency of each food item

Food group Before Now

Days /week 0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7 0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7

Grains

BagelsPizzaVegetables

BroccoliLettuceFruits

StrawberryBananasMeat /meat alternatives

HamburgerHot dogDairy products

MilkCheeseFats /sweets

ButterChocolatesBeverages

CoffeeOthers

Alcohol (more than 1 drink

In the above given table , specific items have been selected as examples from the groups has been filled up by the students , both currently and as per their previous dietary pattern in their home country

This `before and after ‘ comparison helps the researcher to evaluate change in the dietary patterns of different overseas students from various cultural and social backgrounds more effectively . Therefore regarding dietary patterns can be enhanced by this technique efficiently

After creation and proper modification of the detailed questionnaire , it was then given to the participants , who filled these surveys as per their previous and current dietary patterns . After these students filled these queries , they were interviewed by the researcher , in to have the confirmed detailed information regarding their backgrounds , previous eating habits in their own country , and the current eating habits in the United Kingdom

The privacy was once again assured to the students , so that correct and valid information can be collected by the surveyors . Students were given a span of limited days to fill out these questionnaires and return it back to the researcher . As mentioned in the abstract , 74 participants returned the questionnaires , which were then analyzed and a full report was prepared in this regard

As some of the questionnaires were not returned by the participants , the students were sent a reminder card , so that they may return the filled out forms . Several attempts were made to ensure their return , but at last , 74 was the response rate of the participants in this study

During the analysis of the food intake of the overseas students , a list of fifty-three food items were listed for the participants , as a representative of their customary food items . A core of fat and fiber intake foods was taken as the base of these food items

The frequency of the consumption of these food items were asked by the participants . The students were asked to give the frequency on basis of consumption of food items per days in a week . By this technique , the researcher was assisted to evaluate the data on a detailed version

After the analysis of this data table , an estimation of the specific daily nutrients were the converted form of this frequency table , that is , the fat and fiber consumption was appraised through this conversion The nutrition evaluation and diet analysis system was employed by the researcher , which is also known as `Nutritionist III

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

As the response return rate of this study was 74 , 124 questionnaires were taken as the sample of this study , which met the criteria of the research . The non-deliverable questionnaires were 41 , which were not returned by the participants during their given time

In table II , the characteristics of the sample study has been shown According to the analyzed data , the of 44 were males . In light of the interview of women , the food preparation and cooking was done by them in their own country

However , in the United Kingdom , food was prepared by more men than women were . The 21 to 35 years of age was taken as the average age group of participants . During the study , most of the overseas students were single , and most were from the Asian countries , such as , Taiwan , Korea China , India , etc

However , 6 months to 3 years was the usual span of stay of these overseas students in the United Kingdom . Whereas , 25 months stay was considered as the average stay duration of these students , and most of these students were studying for their bachelors and masters degrees in different United Kingdom universities

During the analysis of religious backgrounds , no religious affiliation was taken by 54 of the respondents . However , rest of them were Buddhist and were still on their religious beliefs , that is , fish , beef , onion garlic , leek , and pork , were still omitted by them

On the analysis of economic stability of these overseas students , 100 to 199 pounds per month per person for food was spent by 62 of the students during their stay in the United Kingdom . However , 100 to 149 pounds were spent by 38 of these overseas students

Table II – Characteristics of Sample

Characteristics No . of students Percentage Characteristics No . of students PercentageGender

Age Male 44 35 .5 Below 21 13 10 .48

Female 80 64 .5 21 to 31 74 59 .67

Origin

31 to 41 37 29 .83

China 64 51 .6 Length of Stay Taiwan 20 16 .1 6 mths – 1 yr 24 19 .35

Korea

14 11 .3 1 yr – 2 yrs 64 51 .61

Others 26 21 .0 2 yrs – 3 yrs 36 29 .03

Education High School 3 2 .4 Some College 10 8 .1 University 111 89 .5 Marital Status Single 94 75 .8 Married 30 24 .2 Job Student 69 55 .6 Working also 55 44 .4When these students were analyzed on basis of nutrients intake in their meals , it was indicated in the results that a relatively low-fat diet was that of the current typical United Kingdom diet , which contained 25 .6 of of studies with 27 .4 gm /d

When the previous dietary pattern before the immigration of these overseas students , was compared with the current dietary habits during their stay in the UK , cholesterol intake was seen as increasing significantly , that is , from 258 .8 to 302 .84 mg /d . However , intake of fat in these meals was increased by 7 .28 gm /d , that is , from 49 .21 to 56 .49 gm /d

On detailed review of fat intakes , it was seen that saturated fat increased from 13 .09 to 17 .23 gm /d , and mono-unsaturated fat was seen rising from 13 .49 to 17 .48 gm /d . However , on the analysis of other intakes , and fiber intake was reduced to 27 .5 from 31 .8 gm /d . The table III has been given for the abovementioned details of this analysis and study

Table III – Mean Nutrient Intakes and Comparisons of Overseas Student ‘s Diet

Nutrient Before Before Current Current

Energy 2177 .8 646 .4 2137 .6 641 .8

Carbohydrate 314 .8 94 .4 299 .7 89 .9

Protein 108 .8 43 .5 106 .9 44 .2

Fat 49 .21 21 .6 56 .5 23 .8

Cholesterol 258 .8 133 .3 302 .9 147 .8

Fiber 31 .8 11 .1 27 .5 10 .1 In general , 3 .5 more fat , 3 .5 less carbohydrate , 40 .0 mg /d more cholesterol , and 4 .4 gm /d less fiber was consumed by the overseas students . Although , we can see a sudden and fast change in the intake of these nutrients , whereas a typical United Kingdom , a relatively low-fat diet is observed currently

As per these students opinion , the energy that was observed in their present dietary pattern was 23 .6 . However , a typical United Kingdom diet ‘s 37 of its energy content comes from the fat . Hence , after the analysis of different diets , that is , before and after of the migration to the United Kingdom , they are within the 30 of energy related to the different fat recommendations from Dietary Guidelines for British and some other recommendations from public health organizations . The percentage of different energy sources that were indicated in this study are given below in the Figure 1

Among the components of dietary fat , the major contributor was considered as the saturated fat , which played a major role in the increase of intake of the was increased from 14 .09 of the previous diet to 18 .23 gm /d of the current diet

As discussed subsequently , food preparation practices , such as , the addition of margarine or butter during the cooking of vegetables , or adding cheese to the different food items , went through abrupt changes due to the intake of saturated fat

Similarly , intakes of food group were also changed due to the abovementioned fat intakes , for example , milk , meat , and other servings of fat foods . Some previous overseas students ‘ surveys were also similar to the results , which were brought up by this study

Figure I – Percentage of Energy Sources

In to describe the results those were obtained during this study we should understand that many Asian countries are under the process of industrialization and economic changes are happening there rapidly during the last few decades

Therefore , a wave of westernization has gone through the dietary patterns and habits of the Asians residing in their countries Consequently , the Asian overseas students go through a faster change in their dietary patterns than their counterparts , who are living in their own countries

When the mean servings of various food groups , such as , bread vegetable , meat , fruit , and fat were analyzed before and after migrating to the United Kingdom , it was seen that the milk , fruit , and fat food groups were increased significantly . However , noteworthy reduction was seen in the bread and vegetable servings

In to understand the relationship between changes in nutrient intake and food group of the overseas students , the data was further examined by the researcher . It was indicated in the detailed results that milk , fat , and meat group intakes were highly correlated with the poly-unsaturated , mono-unsaturated , saturated fat , and correlation co-efficient

Similarly , meat , milk , and fat group were highly correlated with the correlation co-efficient of cholesterol . Subsequently , dietary fiber intakes were highly correlated with fruits , vegetable , and bread group respectively

Therefore , the nutrient intake changes can be partially explained by the food group changes in their servings and their relationships as mentioned above . Likewise , the rising rate of fat intake can be explained by the milk group increase

Whereas , when the bread and vegetable group is decreased , it may also bring down the dietary fiber level in the meals . However , the increase in the servings of fruit group may have offset this decrease partially

As given below in the Table IV , the examination of nine specific food preparation practices was done , before and after the stay of overseas students in the United Kingdom . Some significant changes were observed and noted down by the surveyor

For example , the trimming of fat from the meat was quite frequently done by these students . Secondly , butter or margarine was added to the vegetables during the cooking . Similarly , cheese was also added to the foods for the taste purpose

One of the other reasons behind the addition of cheese and butter to the different food items was the westernization technique of traditional and customary diet , which they were having in their countries of origin However , tendency of retaining traditional food practices were found in many participants , who used during their cooking

Table IV – Analysis of Food Preparation Habits of Overseas Students in the UK

Food Items Time Very Often Sometimes Seldom or Never Pouring of sour cream

in the food Current

Before

0 .0

0 .6 22 .5

7 .6 78 .4

92 .3

Trimming of fat

from the meat Current

Before

55 .2

26 .7 28 .1

45 .7 14 .6

27 .6

Use of gravy

with the foods Current

Before

12 .3

12 .3 47 .4

26 .3 38 .5

61 .2

Addition of margarine

to the foods Current

Before

4 .3

3 .4 48 .4

14 .7 47 .8

80 .3

Addition of Cheese

to the foods

Current

Before

3 .1

0 .9 45 .0

8 .8 50 .7

91 .2

Use of vegetable

oil in cooking Current

Before

92 .3

76 .2 6 .7

18 .5 2 .7

5 .4

Use of skim or

non-fat milk Current

Before

21 .3

6 .3 24 .5

11 .3 52 .7

82 .3

Stir-fried

Vegetables Current

Before

63 .8

74 .5 28 .0

22 .7 6 .7

5 .6

Eating of pickle

food Current

Before

12 .6

23 .4 65 .7

63 .0 22 .2

13 .9 The dietary habits and patterns have also been influenced by some of the other factors after the arrival of these students from their Asian countries mainly . After the analysis of these other factors , it was observed that after migrating to the United Kingdom , students were more concerned about their weight and they were more conscious about their health

The cause behind this awareness may be the new environment of the students or their likeness to adjust themselves in this hygienic atmosphere . This shows that the society of United Kingdom is sensitive related to health and wellness , and thus , changed the perception in the coming students from the abroad

Regarding the weight gain concern , it is obvious from the abovementioned studies and results that UK dietary pattern is very high in fat , and therefore , is likely to result in weight gain in these students . It was also found that 65 of the overseas students were found to be gaining weight after coming to the United Kingdom for their studies . The factors that were indicated were already mentioned in our results

In to examine the other influences on dietary patterns of these migrating students , indication of foods missing in their dietary practice after their migration to the UK , was asked by the surveyor . It was observed from their answers that fresh fish , vegetables , noodles bean products , and local cakes were missed by them , as mentioned in the Figure II

From the facts collected from this examination , it was generalize that dietary patterns may have an impact due to the availability of different food items in the area . The lower intake of bean and noodle products resulted in the reduction of fiber and carbohydrate in the students respectively

Table V – Analysis of Dietary Influence Factors of Overseas Students

Factors Time Very

Much Some

What Little or

Spouse Current

Before 29 .2

30 .1 42 .6

33 .4 29 .3

37 .6

Culture Current

Before 41 .2

50 .6 37 .3

26 .7 21 .7

23 .5

Available Time

to cook Current

Before 38 .5

36 .7 48 .3

41 .9 13 .2

21 .5

Available Time

to shop food Current

Before 23 .7

23 .7 53 .4

47 .0 22 .9

31 .2

Available Time

to eat Current

Before 29 .1

28 .4 48 .2

41 .5 23 .4

29 .5

Food Likes

Dislikes Current

Before 44 .7

46 .1 40 .4

36 .9 15 .2

16 .7

Knowledge of

Cooking Current

Before 34 .8

35 .2 51 .0

42 .9 16 .2

22 .6

Health Concern Current

Before 48 .5

25 .9 37 .5

47 .1 13 .6

29 .1

Weight Concern Current

Before 31 .7

13 .4 32 .5

29 .9 37 .2

57 .4

Food Cost Current

Before 28 .3

25 .4 51 .2

52 .8 22 .6

23 .5

Availability of

Getting Healthier Food Current

Before 36 .4

26 .7 42 .9

49 .8 20 .9

26 .1 The current feature in this abovementioned table is shown for the current diet in the United Kingdom of the participants . Whereas , the before characteristic shows their previous dietary pattern in the home countries

Figure II – The Missing Foods that were reported by the Respondents after the Migration

FOODS

Fresh Fish 93 72 .2

Variety Vegetables 53 43 .4

Local Noodles 40 32 .2

Cakes and Cookies 39 31 .4

Bean Products 33 26 .8

Pickles 18 14 .3

Candies and Nuts 14 11 .2

Other Foods 18 14 .3

No Missing Food 11 8 .8

124 100

0 40 80 100

Number of Answered

During this analysis , different other changes were also observed in the eating patterns of these overseas students . For example , the major responsibility of cooking food was given to the women in the Asian countries . Therefore , traditional and customary cuisines were less familiar in the men

However , after migrating to the United Kingdom , food was prepared by men on the larger extent . Therefore , we can say that some of the dietary habits of Asian overseas students have been influenced by this change in their lives . During the research , it was also indicated that as long as the stay was , the more changes were found in the dietary patterns of the students

Socializing with different people from various and adverse backgrounds also plays a vital role in the changing of dietary habits in these students from the abroad . It was also confirmed that the tendency of changing dietary patterns was greater in the younger immigrants and students than the older ones

After migrating to the United Kingdom , there was a reduction of consumption of meals per day . Breakfast was skipped by nearly more than half of the participants , due to lack of time , hectic school schedule and availability of snacks in their colleges and universities , which was not taken as a habit or usual practice in their own countries

Similarly , salty and sweet snack items were consumed by these students which were not regarded as a nutritional habit . The reason of having these food items was the availability of these snacks in a very easy mode . Therefore , they were found buying and eating savory biscuits , cold drinks , chips , and other snacks , which results in their weight gain after the migration to the United Kingdom

Another reason that was indicated in the results was that these overseas students were having limited amount of money in their accounts which forbid them to buy and eat healthier foods in the United Kingdom Consequently , these students were tending to eat UK-style foods , such as , hamburgers , cold drinks , chips , hot drinks , etc

As mentioned previously , lack of time was one of the major reasons for these abrupt changes in their lives . That is the reason that ethnic-style dishes were not by these overseas students and they had a preference over fast foods and snacks

In summary , possible explanations and understandings has been given by the researcher to clarify the factors behind the change in dietary patterns of the overseas students that migrate from mainly Asian countries to the United Kingdom

Some reasons that were explained earlier are the more number of men which prepare and cook food in the United Kingdom after the migration Secondly , students get limited time to shop and cook healthier food , and sometimes even do not have time to eat that food

However , the availability of unhealthier and cheaper food allow them to save their time and therefore , they go through weight gain and various changes in their eating habits . Hectic school , colleges , and universities schedule do not permit these overseas students to maintain their customary and traditional dietary pattern , as they used to uphold in their own countries

Conclusively , a consistency with the other previously done research literature has been observed in the results of this study . The detailed food frequency data was one of the unique features of this study , which investigated on both , before and after the migration of students to the United Kingdom

The escalating rate of fat intakes and the reduction intakes of fiber were demonstrated by the results of this study . However , it was also indicated in these results that the current diet was somehow , low fat and high-fiber diet , and is consistent within different health organizations

However , the long-term health effects of these dietary changes should be studied on a larger extent through further epidemiological research . In addition , in to develop optimal nutrition education interventions role of further exploration is needed in the field of chronic diseases risk factors , diet , and acculturation in the migrants and students , who are residing in the United Kingdom for their different education purposes , and are going through abrupt changes related to their diets

It is hoped that an impetus and momentum for additional studies related to different health and will be provided and served after the results which are obtained in this study

Dietetics practitioners will be helped and supported by these findings of changes in dietary patterns of the overseas students in the United Kingdom . This information can be utilized by the different practitioners , and nutritionists for the planning of various nutrition educational programs for overseas immigrants and students

This study will also help the overseas students to adjust themselves according to the new UK environment , and live and eat healthy foods during their stay in the United Kingdom . The researcher hope that healthful habits will be retained by these students after this study and their traditional and customary food items will be by them , as well as the healthier foods , which are available in the United Kingdom

As mentioned previously , further studies should be done in this regard which should include overseas students on large numbers . These types of participating studies will also spread a wave of awareness in the students , who come or plan to come to the United Kingdom for their studies

Some limitations were also present during the study of the dietary changes of these students . Dietary recall use and the omission of questions for the assessment of influence of stay time on weight changes were some of the limitations of our study . The overseas students who are residing in the United Kingdom for the longest period found the use of dietary recall as problem for themselves . Another difficulty related to the portion size , which was unavailable , was borne by the researcher during this study

Conclusively , the study of the relationship of chronic disease and diet was also focused in this research within overseas immigrants and students in the United Kingdom , which will play a vital role in the provision of useful counseling related to the nutrition , health , and diet in the students

Convincingly , only qualitative changes and understandings were examined and investigated during this research and study . The extra quantitative changes were ignored in this study , which are usually found in the previous studies related to these subjects

References

International Organization For Migration (2005 . Migration , Development And Poverty Reduction In Asia . United Nations Publications

John Higginson (1992 . Human Cancer : Epidemiology And Environmental Causes . Cambridge University Press

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