Essay Title: 

Mallard duck habitat behavior

March 28, 2016 | Author: | Posted in education, teacher's career

Migratory Behavior of Mallard Ducks and their Ability to Inhabit New and Formerly Occupied Territories

Background of the Study

There are four fundamental decisions that most animals make when it comes to mechanisms of adaptation : where to live , how to gather food how to avoid predators , and what tactics to use to reproduce (Alcock 1993 . Habitat preferences in animals require satisfying their needs (ignoring or actively avoiding others , nutritional needs to perform growth , development and reproduction ) at the same time experiencing higher fitness than those unable to settle in the favored habitat [banner_entry_middle]

br There were also several hypothesis presented which correlates habitat preference and fitness . The seasonal dispersion of some animals like ducks is a costly business in terms of energetic expenses and risk to exposure to predators . On the other hand , considering dispersal cost animals that do not respond to dispersion pay the price of deterioration due to the inability to adapt to the prevailing ecological conditions Considering the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis (Ralls et . al , 1979 , on ducks in particular , Mallard ducks may have migrated then for the purpose of expanding their genetic pool by interbreeding with Anas rubipes a close relative of the Anas playrynhos . The costly dispersal of Mallards may have been to avoid inbreeding depression primary of which is to circumvent the expression of damaging recessive alleles resulting from the mating of two closely related mates of the same species . This further correlates with the mate competition hypothesis (Moore and Ali , 1984 , which states that males tend to fight against one another for mates therefore looser find it more energy efficient to seek closely related species to which they may successfully mate . When mating season is over , male disperses to avoid their daughters when these female become sexually mature . Animals engage into energetically exhaustive activity trying to complete the course of their journey to attain its fundamental goals . As the animal arrives to its destination the issue of territoriality always comes to mind whenever a new species is introduced into a new environment and every time the visitor interacts with the native . While other animals ignore or tolerate the presence of a new species in its territory , others are extraordinarily aggressive in defending their territory from intruders . Territoriality among animals contributes to reproductive successes or failure to the contrary which further leads to interspecific competition . If suitable breeding sites really are short of supply , then one should be able to find non-territorial , non-breeding , individuals in populations of territorial animals . If this is so , the niche similarity of the visitors to the native may introduce interspecific competition with the available supplies . Territoriality may also influence the reproductive success of these visitors as it was found by Dhondt and Schillemans (1983 . Territorial animals may invade the nesting sites of migratory birds which may lead to decreased viability and clutch

The ability of birds to fly and survive various environmental conditions has led to their development over time . Seasonal migration of mallard ducks (Anas platyrynchos ) has been one of the… [banner_entry_footer]

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