Essay Title: 

Implementing a new screening test for donations – risks, regulations, challenges and opportunities

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in case study, mathematics and economics

Parvovirus B19 : A Different Kind of Pathogen

Blood transfusions save lives . There is no other way to put it . There is no other way to stress its importance . Without this service there would be no other way to save those who are victims of gunshot wounds accidents that resulted in major blood loss , surgeries that require transfusion and many more medical procedures that require the availability of safe blood

Blood Banks and Transfusion

As mentioned earlier blood banks have reached a level of sophistication that can assure safe blood processing , sterilisation [banner_entry_middle]

, storage and finally transfusion . In information found in the 12th International Convocation on Immunology one can see that in the 20th century it is almost impossible to find infected blood such as those having HIV Hepatitis B and C viruses in blood banks (C .J . van Oss , 1995

Yet , in the same convention , the delegates had to agree that there are still pathogens that could not be eliminated using conventional methods And one of those pathogens is called Parvovirus B19 , which is also known as human parvovirus . It is therefore important to test for the presence of Parvovirus B19 in donated blood . The importance of which will be seen later as introduction of the virus to at risk patients can be fatal

Parvovirus B19

According to Broliden , Tolfvenstam Norbeck (2006 ) B19 is thought to exclusively infect humans , and shows a pronounced tropism for erythroid precursors ‘ Moreover , they added that with regards to infection shows a seasonal variation in temperature climates , .being more common during the winter and early spring [ .] B19 is normally transmitted through the respiratory route , but can also be transmitted vertically from the mother to the foetus , through BM and organ tranplantations , and via transfused blood products (Broliden Tolfvenstam Norbeck , 2006

A more technical of the virus can be found in Murphy and Pamphilon ‘s work and the authors made the following remarks concerning the human parvovirus

The parvoviruses are one of the smallest DNA viruses that infect humans They are very stable non-enveloped viruses that are resistant to many chemical and physical inactivation techniques . Parvovirus B19 is the only definite member of the genus erythrovirus – the virus replicates in erythroid progenitor cells (1995

In the world of Pediatrics , Katie Barnes highlights the following attributes of the virus

Parvovirus B19 (human parvovirus ) is the causative agent for erythema infectiosum or fifth disease so named because it was the fifth disease to be described with similar rashes like measles , rubella , scarlet fever and roscola

It appears commonly as an erythermatous , macular , papular rash in a patient that otherwise is a febrile and well appearing

Due to the ever-present nature of the virus , community outbreaks are common . Infection is possible throughout the year

Infection can result in transient aplastic crisis (TAC ) among children with hereditary haemolytic anaemia like sickle cell disease spherocytosis and thalassaemia or marked immunosuppression

B19 infection among pregnant women has been linked to fetal infection and subsequent pregnancy loss and spontaneous abortion… [banner_entry_footer]


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