Essay Title: 

How has the birth control policy influenced one or more aspects of Chinese society in the 1990s and beyond?(family structures,education,etc)

March 17, 2016 | Author: | Posted in education, pedagogy

Impact of China ‘s Birth Control measures on its Society

Introduction

The aim of this study is to examine how the China ‘s birth control measures have affected its society in respect of family structures education and other aspects in 1990 and beyond

Chinese rulers in their anxiety to accomplish their avowed objective of achieving higher per capita income , had announced in their own authoritarian style the mandatory one child norm way back in 1979 /80

Case for one-child policy

In an open letter to the members of Communist Party and [banner_entry_middle]

Chinese Communist Youth League on Controlling Population Growth , on September 25 , 1980 , Central Committee of the Chinese Party justified the need for one-child fertility policy on the ground that population growth created scarcity in availability of food , clothing , housing transportation , education opportunities , medical care , and employment as unchecked population growth increased consumption leaving reduced or nil capital accumulation and investment . And that it could result in poor standard of living , lesser per capita income , faster depletion of natural resources besides energy , water , and forests , worsened environmental pollution . The idea behind this state birth planning rather than voluntary family planning was that scientific socialism should realise not only economic production but also social reproduction

Enforcement

In late 1970s , China had actually started experimenting on one-child policy before formal implementation in early 1980s . Even then the rural families showed strong resistance and were bent upon having two children and a son . Hence urban areas only came under the focus of the implementation . For rural areas the exceptions were given for two children in cases of couples having one girl . By 1990s , the persuasion was not very strong for rural areas for one child . For urban areas too if the couples (both spouses ) are single children , they are allowed to have two children . We can say the sense of emergency is fading by the turn of the millennium , though results of the country ‘s 2000 census indicate an emergence of a crisis called `fourth peak ‘ by 2009-2014 which may call for another emergency

Human costs

The birth planning forces women to resort to practice contraception through IUDs or sterilization and in case of contraceptive failures they have to undergo mandatory abortions exposing themselves to adverse medical side effects due to unsuitable IUDs and possible messed up surgeries . As these are done by persuasion , the emotional costs also are very high . Preference to sons and limitations on number of children in rural areas renders baby girls to be aborted , concealed and abandoned adopted out and allowed to die . More over such children born secretly cannot be registered as citizens thus depriving them of education health and other benefits

A brief account of modus operandi

A Woman should apply to her work unit for age certificate on her reaching the age of 24 to become pregnant . She has to produce it before the her residence committee which then would grant her documentary permission to become pregnant . The document would entitle her to avail of… [banner_entry_footer]

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