Essay Title: 

History of Allergy and Immunology

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in case study, mathematics and economics

General History of Allergy and Immunology

Introduction

This article discusses the general history of allergy and immunology Due to the fact that such subject is broad complex , it is divided into sections of timeline . The first section begins from 1798 (smallpox vaccination ) until 1894 (Pfeiffer ‘s bacteriolysis . The second timeline section continues from 1900 (Ehrlich ‘s antibody formation theory ) until 1949 (immunological tolerance hypothesis . The third section begins from 1951 (discovery of yellow fever vaccine ) until 1976 (identification of somatic recombination of immunoglobin genes . The last timeline section continues from [banner_entry_middle]

1983 (HIV discovery ) until 2005 (development of human papillomavirus vaccine . Along the discussion , major milestones of the history of allergy and immunology have been highlighted

Background

The continual , cruel , yet abundantly productive process of evolution has given us the phenomenon of man . With tactless arrogance we imagine ourselves to represent the peak in biological achievement . Thus far regardless of the extraordinary control over environmental forces which our species gained over the millennia , one specter , with immeasurable effects on the course of history , stayed a daily threat to human happiness and survival right up to the present century . This was infectious disease , and particularly epidemic disease . The viruses and bacteria responsible for typhoid , plague , smallpox , cholera , and poliomyelitis represented enemies more understated and more dangerous than the elements or the larger predators . To the historians of the future , the fundamental eradication of the major infectious diseases as major causes of fatality in Western communities will certainly rank as one of the key indications of this extraordinary century . This conquest can be attributed to the comparable development of the twin sciences microbiology and immunology

The primary “golden age of immunology ” in fact , had its origins in the latter part of the 19th century . This was the period of Louis Pasteur and rabies vaccination , the anti-diphtheria sera of von Behring and Wernicke , and Ehrlich and Metchnikoff digging into the academic aspects of bodily defenses . A rapid practical expansion of immunization procedures and significant progress in experimentation on antibodies the protective protein molecules poured into the bloodstream following vaccination occurred during the first two decades of the twentieth century . By the mid-1930s , immunization had attained extensive public acceptance and the attention in disease control altered to the sulphonamides and immediately to the even more magical antibiotics After its first golden age , many have thought that the heyday of immunology was over but the 1950 decade marked the beginning of the second golden age and is currently on its ascendancy phase

1798-1894

Edward Jenner

History of immunology begun when a British physician named Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox on 1796 . It was during the time that smallpox was a major cause of death . He observed that dairymaids who had been infected with a mild pustular skin infection known as cowpox were thereafter confident that they could never be stricken with smallpox , and the local experience (or , at least , the folklore ) seemed to corroborate the connection . After a decade of theorizing and empirical observation… [banner_entry_footer]

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