Industrial revolution pertains to the period marking the introduction of mass production , radical socioeconomic changes , improved transportation technological progress , and the industrial factory system . It is characterized by extensive mechanization of production systems which resulted to a shift from home-based hand manufacturing to large-scale factory production . Technological changes included the use of iron and steel , new energy sources , the invention of new machines that increased production (including the steam engine and the spinning jenny , the development of the factory system , and important developments in transportation and communication (including [banner_entry_middle]
the railroad and the telegraph . Industrialization effected changes in economic , political and social organization . These included a wider distribution of wealth and increased international trade political changes resulting from the shift in economic power sweeping social changes that included the rise of working-class movements , the development of managerial hierarchies to oversee the division of labor and the emergence of new patterns of authority and struggles against externalities such as industrial pollution and urban crowding
Although there was a massive transformation in economy and technology which happened in so many countries all over the world , two revolutionary periods stood out . The First Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the last decades of the eighteenth century . It resulted from the rapid adoption of three new technologies–the steam engine , coal and furnaces . The Second Industrial Revolution began about a century later and was centered in the United States and Germany . It resulted from a wave of innovations in the production of metals and other materials , machinery , chemicals , and foodstuffs . The First Industrial Revolution altered the direction and hastened the growth of the American economy . The Second transformed that economy into its modern urban
In terms of social structure , the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility gentry . Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labor dominated by a pace set by machines . Harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the industrial revolution took place as well Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel-child labor dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution
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Labor organizations before the Civil War
The first attempts to organize disgruntled workers occurred earlier in the nineteenth century (during the 1820s and the 1830s . In major cities , such as New York , Philadelphia , and Chicago , laborers joined “Workingmen ‘s Parties ” to try and control municipal politics . For the most part , middle- and upper-class leaders , not laborers themselves dominated these organizations and believed that workers had the power to reform society . Such organizations brought together men who had migrated to cities from rural towns and who often had little experience dealing with the complexities of city life and factory work . The vast majority of these men was skilled laborers who still believed they… [banner_entry_footer]
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