Essay Title: 

Fetal macrosomia is one of the leading causes gestational dibetes

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in health and medicine

: Fetal macrosomia is one of the leading causes gestational diabetes

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Explaining my thesis statement of how fetal macrosomia is directly related to gestational diabetes in infants

Fetal macrosomia is a condition in which the fetus tends to grow to a larger than normal size for the given population and sex (usually greater than 4000 grams at birth . It occurs in 1 to 10 of the general population . Women who develop have a prolonged pregnancy , or suffer from preexisting diabetes mellitus or develop [banner_entry_middle]

gestational diabetes , are at a high risk of having a baby with macrosomia (MESH 1987 . Gestational diabetes is a condition in which diabetes mellitus develops in relation to pregnancy , and usually resolves once pregnancy ends . The condition frequently arises during the later stages of pregnancy and is characterized by a rise in the levels of hormones opposing the action of insulin , leading to insulin resistance , glucose intolerance and a rise in the sugar levels in the blood (hyperglycemia (MESH 1992

Studies suggest that women suffering from gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes are at a higher risk of giving birth to babies with fetal macrosomia . This may be associated with fetal hyperinsulinemia (rise in the insulin levels in the unborn baby (Siccardi , D . C . 2007 Studies conducted in experimental conditions demonstrate that maternal hyperglycemia is often associated higher triglyceride levels in the maternal blood . When the maternal blood reaches the placenta , the triglycerides are converted by the placental lipase into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA . These NEFA can cross the placenta and enter the fetal blood very easily , unlike triglycerides . Lipids are a very important source of energy for the developing fetus . Pederson et al also suggested that maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidoses encouraged fetal hyperinsulinemia as a protective mechanism . The high insulin levels in the fetal blood encouraged deposition of lipids in the body tissues . Hence , the triglycerides were stored in the body tissues of the fetus resulting in fetal weight gain . Some researchers even suggested that macrosomia was related to the higher glucose level present in the maternal blood , but Knopp RH et al proved that fetal weight gain was related to the triglycerides levels . Merzouk et al suggested that the dyslipidemia was similar to the hypertriglyceridemia that develops in insulin-resistant or type 2 diabetes cases (Jolly , M et al 2000

Besides the levels of insulin rising in the fetal blood , several other substances such as insulin-like growth factors , growth hormones , etc were released in higher quantities resulting in deposition of fat and storage of glycogen in the body of the fetus . Fetal macrosomia occurs in about 50 of all pregnancies characterized by gestational diabetes and 40 of those pregnancies in which the mother had pre-existing type I diabetes mellitus . This suggests that poor maternal glucose control is the single greatest cause for fetal macrosomia (Jazayeri , A . 2005

During the third trimester , the need for nutrients by the fetus is very important , and a rise in the maternal glucose… [banner_entry_footer]


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