Essay Title: 

Erik Erikson

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in psychology, social sciences

: Erik Erikson

p Describe the school of thought (post-Freudian , Erikson ‘s contribution to the field of psychology of personality , occurrences that might have influenced Erikson`s perspective , and how Erikson`s theories can be applied to the workplace . Must have 4 sources for reference page (2 internet , 2 books or articles

Eric Erickson faced a lot of problems with psychological identity when he was a child . These events may have brought about his interest in identity crisis and psychology . His mother Karla Abrahamsen concealed the true identity of his father from Eric [banner_entry_middle]

when he was a child . Eric ‘s mother was from a good Jewish family in Copenhagen , Denmark . They had developed a good name through charity and serving immigrants from Russia . Karla was married to Waldemar Isidor Salomonsen , a Jewish businessman . Eric (who was first known as `Eric Salomonsen ) was officially born in Germany on 15th June , 1902 . His true father was Danish , and many people suggest that his name was Eric . Karla worked as a nurse and later married a Jewish physician by the name of Dr . Theodor Homburger (in 1904 , who had treated Eric as a child patient . His stepfather adopted Eric , and was now known as Eric Homburger . Identity was one of the biggest problems Eric and faced in his early life , and these events may have provoked him to develop his own theory . The changing identify of Eric was mainly to keep the details of his father a secret . Eric was often teased in school for belonging to the Scandinavian community . They also nagged him for being a Jew and the manner in which he spoke German . Eric was mainly interested in arts during his high school days

Eric developed the psychosocial theory on social development . He also added more details to Freud ‘s psychosexual theory by providing three stages more . Besides , he supplemented the Ego theory , by suggesting the manner in which the ego is affected by the Id . Erickson considered that the environment of the child played a very important role in its development , adjustment , growth , creation of self-awareness and identity . He himself experienced the identity crisis during childhood Erickson found it very difficult to get over the identity problem he was experiencing . Erickson began to research child psychoanalysis in the 1920 ‘s along with Ann Freud . In 1933 , he migrated to the US to study at the University . In America , he officially changed his name to Eric Erickson . He developed a lot of interest in the relations between society and child development . He studied American children in detail to understand child psychology . He wrote this first book Childhood and Society in 1950 (Cramer , C . et al , 1997

Eric Erickson believed in Freud ‘s Ego psychology . He also accepted the concepts added to Freud ‘s theory by his associates , namely , Heinz Hartmann and Anna Freud . Erickson concentrated on the social and culturally aspects of ego and psychology that Freud did not concentrate He did not give much interest to instincts and the unconscious mind

Eric Erickson expanded the psychosexual stages of development by Freud and named it as The Epigenetic Theory . There were eight stages of development in this theory that were predetermined . He often considered that success at development depended on the success at the completing the previous stage . He felt that environmental factors can play a very important role in the development of these eight stages . During each stage a psychosocial developmental task is completed . In the infant stage , trust and mistrust was learnt . He suggested that both trust and mistrust had to be learned in balanced proportions by the infant Besides , each of these tasks had to be learned within an optimum period of time . Often environmental factors (such as demands from the parents may push children in completing certain tasks faster than normal . Once a stage is handled by the child appropriately , he /she would develop a psychosocial ability that could be utilized throughout life . Children who are unable to complete a particularly stage properly , may have a lot of problems later in life , such as maladaptations (developing more of the positive side and less of the negative side ) and malignancy (developing a little of the positive side and more of the negative side (Boereee , G , 1997

Erickson considered that parents , family (especially the elders in the family ) and the society , played a very important role in the psychological development of the child . He termed the interactions between the generations as `mutuality . Each time a generation was added , significant changes developed in the family environment . Young mothers (who give birth to children in adolescence ) may be performing the tasks that are usually performed in the adolescent stage (defining the identity and the relationship to the society . The mother may be more involved in these tasks , whereas the child ‘s grandparents may have to intervene in to care for the child . In such circumstances several people experience a disturbance in their developmental stages (Boereee , G , 1997

According to Erickson , the first stage of life was the infant stage (0 to 1 year , in which the child depended on the mother and the main psychosocial crisis was with trust and mistrust . The second stage was the toddler stage (2 to 3 years , in which the child depended on the parents and the main psychosocial crisis was with autonomy , shame and doubt . The third stage was preschool stage (2 to 6 , in which the child depended on the family , and initiative and guilt were the main psychosocial crisis . The fourth stage of life was the school-age child (7 to 12 , in which the child interacted with the neighbors and people of the school , and the main psychosocial crisis was industrial and inferiority . In the fifth stage (adolescence – from 12 to 18 years the child developed peer groups and role models and the main psychosocial crisis was ego-identity and role-confusion . In the sixth stage (young adult – from 20 to 30 , the individual interacted with partners and friends and the main psychosocial issue was intimacy and isolation . In the seventh stage (middle age from 30 to 50 , people at the workplace and home were usually interacted with , and generosity and self-absorption were main psychosocial issues . In the eight stages that went beyond the age of 50 years (old age ) the younger generations were usually interacted with , and integrity and despair developed as psychosocial crisis (Boereee , G , 1997

Erickson felt that higher cognitive functions developed by interacting with others . These included speech , language , vocabulary , etc . During the first stage , the child ‘s parents are able to give the child a sense of security , and hence are trusted

Ego Identity Versus Role Confusion was a situation in which an individual having an identity of himself /herself , tries to find out how he can be of some use to the society . Role confusion is a situation in which the individual is no more able to be of any use to the society Adolescents when seeking an occupation experience this phenomenon . The ego identity is a method of converting all the knowledge acquired during earlier life and utilizing it for some purpose that can serve the society . In history , youth were often asked to prove their ego identity by going in the forest for a few days and bringing a hunted animal back An individual , who is thoroughly confused with their role in society may be experiencing an identity crisis . Too much of preoccupancy in a particular role or task , and leaving no space for other ideas is known as `fanaticism . A condition in which the individual lacks an identity is known as `repudiation . In such cases , the individual joins certain groups to develop an identity , and often such groups indulge in criminal activity . The inability to achieve a certain role through an occupation or through academic performances may be very disturbing to the individual

During the old age period , the individual may have to retire from work (by the age of 60 . Some individuals may not prefer this . An individual should consider that this stage is important as a part of development Ego integrity should be developed and efforts should be on to reduce any despair that can develop . Social interactions are often reduced and the sense of usefulness (that previously existed ) could be lost now Individuals often tend to think about their past as a sign of despair They often reflect on the failures and bad experiences of life . This often causes depression and distress . They should instead develop ego integrity , through which they should be able to understand that these are the experiences are a normal part of life

Erickson felt that only through generavity the next generation can be guided . Generavity includes productivity and creativity , and did not merely mean teaching and rearing of the offspring . Once an individual is able to establish close relationships with others through the earlier stages of development , the ego and energy is extended to develop relationships with active groups , society and organizations (in to spread his knowledge and skills , and at the same time obtain satisfaction . In this way , he /she can achieve a role with the management , organization and group . If an individual is not able to demonstrate generavity , pseudo-engagement is demonstrated in the profession . Technically , the individual may be competent in their work If the generavity fails , the individual develops serious stagnation in development , severe life-changes and sexual problems . This condition is characterized both by physical and psychological issues . It not only affects the individual , but also the organization (which relies on the individual for maintaining responsibilities and leadership . Several such failures in various organizations can often lead to disruption in normal social functions , which is a commonly observed problem nowadays (Newton , D .S . 2005


Beoree , C . G (1997 . Erik Erikson . Retrieved 28 January , 2007 . from Shippensburg University Web site : HYPERLINK “http /webspace .ship .edu /cgboer /erikson .html http /webspace .ship .edu /cgboer /erikson .html

Cramer , C , Flynn , B LaFave , A (1997 . Erik Erikson ‘s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development . Retrieved 28 January , 2007 . from Suny Cortland Web site : HYPERLINK “http /web .cortland .edu /andersmd /ERIK /WELCOME .HTML http /web .cortland .edu /andersmd /ERIK /WELCOME .HTML

Cramer , C , Flynn , B LaFave , A (1997 . ErikErikson : The Father of Psychosocial Development . Retrieved 28 January , 2007 . from Suny Cortland Web site : HYPERLINK “http /web .cortland .edu /andersmd /ERIK /bio .HTML http /web .cortland .edu /andersmd /ERIK /bio .HTML

Morgan , C . T , King , R . A , Weisz J . R Schopler , J (2006 Introduction to Psychology (7th ed , New York : McGraw-Hill

Newton , D . S (2005 . Erik Erikson , In . Sadock , B . J Sadock , V . A (Ed . Kaplan ‘s and Sadock ‘s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (Vol 2 , 8th ed . Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Wong , N (2002 . The Erik Erickson Reader ‘ Am J Psychiatry , 159 1951-1952



_Erik Erikson

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