URBAN SPRAWL : DEVELOPMENT OR ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE
What does it really take to experience development ? What are the defining criteria for development ? Is development quantitatively measured or qualitatively evaluated ? What are the key indicators of a developing or developed country ? The answers depend on the person ‘s priority and preference
The expansion of metropolitan areas has been referred to as urban development by those who are after the material indicators of development- high rise buildings , wider highways , more cars and more parks . For those who are concerned with the long-term environmental and [banner_entry_middle]
br health effects of urbanization , they call it urban sprawl
For the purpose of having a common point of reference , let me use 1Dr Howard Frumkin ‘s definition of urban sprawl : the complex pattern of land use , transportation and social and economic development ‘ This complex pattern requires the extension of urban areas to rural areas and thus converting the latter to urbanized locality . Urbanization implies vast forest and agricultural lands to be converted to different land uses . Sad to say , the list includes recreational facilities and parks which , for investment and environmental considerations are to be of least priority . Extensive roads construction which provides spaces for suburban dwellers to drive a car just to buy a pack of cigarette in the next block , is not suppose to be of immediate consideration . Besides this qualitative indicators of poor urban sprawl considerations , there are environmental threats of urban sprawl that are needed to be evaluated and be given high priority by the development advocates , as it concerns life of the present and future generations
2 Automobile has been a prerequisite to urban sprawl (J .E Anderson ) The most adverse effect of heavy reliance to automobiles is obviously air pollution . In the United States , 3about 25 of all trips are shorter than one mile of these , 75 are by car . Another related 4study revealed that only 1 of trips in the US are on bicycle and 9 by foot . Do these figures present impressive urban development rates for the US ? I am afraid not because the Netherlands has 30 accounting for transportation on bicycle . These facts rather provide proofs that vehicles are the leading source of air pollution . Despite modern environmental standards , urban air quality remains to be greatly affected by the emission of air pollutants from transport . In the 5US alone , 30 of nitrogen oxide and 30 of hydrocarbon emissions are brought about by mobile sources . In addition , 5carbon dioxide emission which is the end product of burning fuel such as gas , accounts for 80 emissions . Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas , with global warming potential . Needless to explain , development should no be measured quantitatively , that is by the number of cars that are going to and fro the streets of the cities . Rather , development should be measured qualitatively , that how much does it contribute to the quality of life the residents are to experience when programs relative to urban sprawl are push through
Housing development is a part of urban sprawl… [banner_entry_footer]
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