Review of Dengue Vaccine Studies with Human Subjects
Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are acute diseases caused by a virus Flavivirus from the family Flaviviridae . The vector of transmission is a mosquito Aedes aegypti . Symptoms are fever headaches , myalgia and arthralgias , rashes , gastritis with nausea vomiting , and diarrhea . Transmission happen through mosquito bites Dengue hemorrhagic fever is often fatal due to high fever and haemorrhagic phenomena . These symptoms promote dengue shock syndrome (DSS ) and death . There is no commercially available vaccine at this time . A survey of policy makers and public [banner_entry_middle]
health professionals in 4 South East Asian countries was conducted to determine the public health importance of the need for the vaccines . The survey outcome revealed a consistent heightened level of concern about dengue fever /DHF considering that children in these poorer countries are at high risk because of their weaker immune system . Studies have been done among the human populations at risk (Clarke , 2002 (Halstead , Deen , 2002
Sun , Edelman , Kanesa-Thasan , Eckels at al . and Innis Eckels provide a background on monovalent and tetravalent vaccine candidates . Two new types of vaccine by Durbin et al . were tested . These new types of vaccines were produced by recombinant DNA techniques . Sun et al . looked at experimental monovalent (1 serotype ) and tetravalent (4 serotypes vaccines reaction as well as immunogenicity effects on human volunteers in a out by Innis Eckels . The U .S . Army had been working on vaccines for their human forces . After discovering successful ways to culture the virus , vaccines were made with 1 viral serotype and 4 finally 4 serotypes . The reason for this effort is that infection with one serotype does not protect the patient from other infectious serotypes The Innis is an introduction to the problem of finding a universal dengue vaccine monovalent vaccines must be compared with tetravalent vaccines the study from Sun et al . is the application of this idea Therefore , their result shows that a tetravalent vaccine is better than a monovalent vaccine because tetravalent vaccines may protect patients from all 4 infectious serotypes . In addition , the same study revealed that there were significant side-effects to these experimental vaccines However , Durbin et al . focuses on the idea that previous studies had not been able to find a vaccine candidate able to balance reactogenicity and immunogenicity . Therefore , their strategy is to use DNA recombinant techniques to generate a mutant virus of serotype 1 and 4 . Their hypothesis relies on the understanding of how the virus is structured If deletions of key structural elements are made , the virus may still elicit immunogenicity but may not cause side-effects
Protection of Human Subjects . Healthy adult male and non-pregnant female volunteers between the ages of 18 and 50 years were enrolled if they met eligibility criteria . Seventy-two volunteers were recruited and enrolled into the 3 different dose cohorts and were followed for the duration of the trial . Volunteers ranged in age from 18 years to 50 years . There was no significant difference in mean age… [banner_entry_footer]
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