Essay Title: 

Critical Thinking

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in communications and media

Fallacies are errors in reasoning (Hinacay , 2004 . These are committed by people in making their reasons true . There are two types of fallacies formal fallacies and informal fallacies . The Fallacies of Relevance belonged to the group of informal fallacies . One of its types is the Argumentum ad Hominem or argument against man . This fallacy is committed when one tries to disprove the proposition by attacking the person or the character of the speaker rather than the argument . The argument will appear erroneous in as much the character of the speaker An example [banner_entry_middle]

to it is this : Congressman Araci proposed a bill that prohibits same sex marriage . As we all know , Congressman Araci is a corrupt congressman . Therefore the bill should not be accepted

As we have noticed , the person attacks the congressman ‘s character to make the proposed bill unacceptable . Argumentum ad Hominem has three forms . One form is the ad Hominem abusive . This is committed when the respondents refutes the speaker ‘s claim by abusing his character verbally . For example : The campaign against drugs is headed by a known gambler . I don ‘t think it would be reliable if we let him speak before the World Conference on Drugs . This is commonly heard . One significant in studying this is that as a critical thinker we can discern which is true . The main attack of this type of fallacy is the listener ‘s emotion A negative perspective is injected into the listener ‘s mind for him to feel that everything is negative . It is like dropping a pinch of soil into a barrel of water . Because we know that a soil is dirty we can conclude that the whole water is dirty too when in fact if we look at it in a microscopic level we can see that the dirt actually did not contaminate the whole water . Thus , as a listener we need to stick to the argument rather than to people ‘s reason , but of course we should based our decision on their reasons but what I mean is that do not be affected wit the reasons which attacks the person ‘s character abusively

Another form is the ad Hominem circumstantial . This is committed when the respondent directly uses the circumstances affecting the speaker religion , ethnic background and etc . to make the speaker ‘s claim false An example to it is this : Why should we listen to that woman ‘s lecture about civilization when in fact she comes from the Mountain region ? I don ‘t think we can get a lesson civilization from an uncivilized citizen . Because it is the human nature to prejudge , we often missed the best because of a poor reasoning . We need to be alert on this form of fallacy . Never judge a person by looking at his affiliation . This happened to me once when I say I don ‘t think this government official will do good knowing that he belonged to the same party . We often generalize that ‘s why we fall into… [banner_entry_footer]

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