Essay Title: 

Cardiovascular System

March 31, 2016 | Author: | Posted in it management, technology

Running head : CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Cardiovascular System

Student Name

Place

December 12 , 2006

Abstract

The article starts with defining and describing the various terms finally explaining the ill-effects of atherosclerosis and complications thereof

Cardiovascular System

Atria and Ventricle : As stated in Wikipedia the free encyclopedia , atria (singular atrium ) are two thin walled chambers on either sides of the heart receiving blood into heart . The atria do not have valves at their inlets . Whereas ventricles are two thick walled chambers receiving blood from atria , notably left ventricle has a [banner_entry_middle]

thicker wall than the right ventricle . Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava bring de-oxygenated blood to right atrium from various parts of the body . This blood is then sent to right ventricle from where it is sent to lungs for oxidation The left and right pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to left atrium . This blood is in turn sent to left ventricle and further the blood is pumped to various parts of the body . Wall of the left ventricle is thicker since it has to pump blood to various organs of the body

Sinoatrial Node and Atrioventricular Node : The sinoatrial node or SA node consists of a group of cells present on the wall of right atrium of the heart . The sinoatrial node is an impulse generating (pacemaker tissue innervated with vagal and sympathetic fibers . On the other hand the atrioventricular node or AV node is a tissue between the atria and ventricles of the heart . The atrioventricular node is also known as Aschoff-Tawara node

Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure : Pressure created at right angles to the walls of blood vessels is called Blood Pressure The systolic pressure is defined as the peak pressure in the arteries during a cardiac cycle and diastolic pressure is lowest pressure Typical values of a healthy adult are 120 Hg mm systolic and 80 Hg mm diastolic

Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output : While Stroke volume (SV ) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart the cardiac output is described as the volume of blood being pumped by a ventricle per minute

Stroke volume and Cardiac Output are calculated as follows

Stroke Volume (SV End Diastolic Volume (EDV ) – End Systolic Volume (ESV . For example in a healthy 70 kg subject EDV is 120 ml and corresponding ESV is 50 ml thus the stroke volume would work out to be 70 ml

Cardiac Output (CO Stroke Volume (SV ) x Heart Rate (HR

Hypertension and Other Medical Problems due to Atherosclerosis

According to National Heart Lung and Blood Institute , atherosclerosis is a slow progressive disease affecting the arteries of brain , heart kidneys and the limbs caused by hardening and narrowing of the arteries Plaque comprises of cholesterol , fat , calcium and other substances found in the blood . As the plaque accumulates it may narrow down the artery restricting the blood flow , thus leading to hypertension . Plaque may be of two types namely

Hard and stable

Soft and… [banner_entry_footer]

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