Essay Title: 

Ancient Chinese Science and Technology

March 27, 2016 | Author: | Posted in asian studies, history

ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Ancient China is one of the most remarkable civilizational phenomena ever known . It gave birth to a number of inventions and discoveries which are still used in our times , including compass , porcelain , silk gunpowder and many others . This is to examine the most prominent issues of ancient Chinese science and technology . It will focus on agriculture , engineering , mathematics , astronomy and medicine

Agriculture

Ancient Chinese economy was based on agricultural production . It was a river civilization so the Chinese began to build dikes to control the [banner_entry_middle]

annual flooding . Later this allowed to begin rice farming . Their fertilizing allowed them to use the fields year after year , without the need to allow it to lay fallow . In the sixth century BC the Chinese began growing crops in rows , which has not been practiced in western world until the eighteenth century . One of the evidence was the Master Lu ‘s Spring and Autumn Annals . It tells us : If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other ‘s growth . The horizontal rows must be well drawn , the vertical rows made with skill , for if the lines are straight the wind will pass gently through

By the fourth century BC the Chinese government authorities started to promote a frame-plow . It was the first to have adjustable strut which regulated the plowing depth by altering the distance between the blade and the beam . Also the Chinese approached towards winnowing grain to separate out husks and stalks from the grain after harvest and threshing . The grain has been thrown up into the air , preferably in a strong wind , so that the chaff is blown away while the grain falls down to the ground . Later , winnowing baskets were invented allowing to separate the heavy grain from the chaff , which is gradually tipped over the edge of the basket , leaving the grain behind . Later still , the winnowing sieve was introduced . By the second century BC , Chinese invented rotary winnowing fan

When plow farming technologies were brought into Holland and England in the seventeenth century from China , they sparked the European agricultural revolution , and it is believed that European agricultural revolution brought up the Industrial Revolution . So , the Chinese technology paid a great contribution into rise of the West

Engineering

Outstanding Chinese engineering achievements are being applied in the whole world . Though Chinese were not the first to make steel in the 2 century BC , they did invent two exclusive steel production processes taking the carbon out of cast iron , and melting wrought and cast iron together to make something in between which was steel . New types of steel were used the steel mostly in the weapon making such as new swords , new crossbows , and some in the agriculture tools parts

One of the inventions of greatest utility which has spread from China throughout the world , so that its origins are no longer realized , is the square-pallet chain pump consisting of an endless circulating… [banner_entry_footer]

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