Essay Title: 

a critical report on research methods (3pages)48hours; case study – report methods (3pages)48hours; sustainable development (4pages)7days; data analysis and interpretation(4pages) 7days; business and sustainability(5pages)7days;

April 3, 2016 | Author: | Posted in geography, nature


Chinakiso Achulu

A comparative study of the effects of rail and short haul air travel , by br

. Watkiss , R . Jones D . Rhodes , A . Hardy , C . Handley , C . Walker Published July 2001

January 2007 Table of content i

Table of contents 1 Introduction 1 1 .1 Purpose 1

1 .2 Scope 1

1 .3 Date sources and methods 2

1 .4 Limitation

2 . Analysis and Interpretation 3

2 [banner_entry_middle]

.1 Greenhouse gas emissions 3

2 .2 Atmospheric pollutants 3

2 .3 Noise 4

2 .4 Land -Take 4

3 . Conclusion 5

4 . References 6

Introduction 1


1 .1 Purpose

The purpose of this report is to critically assess and analyse the approach and methodology in determining the comparative environmental burdens of high-speed rail and short haul air travel for regional domestic journeys

1 .2 Scope

This report compares the two modes of transport for specific journeys between the main domestic flight routes in the UK , namely between London and : Manchester , Leeds , Newcastle , Edinburgh and Glasgow

1 .3 Data , sources , and methods applied

An assessment of current environmental burdens for each route , per passenger carried , based on average load factors-33 average seat occupancy for rail routes , and typically 65 – 75 for air routes . The future changes in these environmental burdens were also considered . This is because there will be a planned upgrade and fleet changes in future years

Greenhouse ‘ gas emissions were measured to determine CO2 emissions per passenger in kilometers (Km . Other atmospheric emissions to determine the SO2 , NOx , CO , PM10 content were considered . Emissions from surface access were investigated . The noise level and its burden to the environment and also the determination of Land-take ‘ and its impact to the environment such as

Introduction 2

habitat loss , fragmentation and community severances were considered also as a yard stick for carrying out this report

1 .4 Limitations

Certain limitations were encountered in this report . Future changes in average load factors have not been considered . This is because it is beyond the scope of this study and lack of relevant data

Analysis Interpretation 3


2 .1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

It can be argued that short-haul air journeys have lighter CO2 emissions , per passenger (Km , than high-speed rail . Domestic aircraft have emission of 200 – 300gCO2 /passenger km compared to around 40g CO2 /passenger km for high-speed rail

Atmospheric Pollutants (SO2 , Nox , Co , Pm10 And VOC5

High-speed rail journeys have a higher SO2 emission , per passenger (km than domestic air . This is due to the fact that there is a high SO2 emission from the UK electricity generating mix – coal fired generation The SO2 emission from high-speed trains is projected to fall significantly in future years

Domestic aircraft have higher emissions of ground level CO , NOx and VOCs , per passenger (km , than high-speed rail and are higher on shorter trips , because of emissions from take – off and landing . The only exception to this… [banner_entry_footer]


This author has published 9453 articles so far. More info about the author is coming soon.
Did you like this essay sample?

You must be logged in to post a comment.